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The polished stone artefacts in the life of the Starčevo and Sopot culture population of eastern Croatia


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Rajković, Dragana. (2019). The polished stone artefacts in the life of the Starčevo and Sopot culture population of eastern Croatia. PhD Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Archaeology.
(PDS arheologije) [mentor Težak-Gregl, Tihomila].

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This dissertation examines polished stone artifacts from the neolithic sites of Selci Đakovački-Kaznica-Rutak, Belišće-Staro Valpovo, Kneževi Vinogradi-Primary School, Osijek-Filipovica (Herman's Vineyard) and Stari Perkovci-Debela šuma. The material originates from the sites belonging to the Starčevo and Sopot culture, while the sites themselves were explored to different extents and with varying methodology, which influenced the final result, as well as the quality of the data. In the analysis of polished stone artifacts, the entire chain of operations, i.e., different phases of the technological process, from the selection and collection of raw materials, processing, use, waste and reuse with various finishing techniques were observed. For the area in question, polished stone artifacts appear in advanced shapes from the very beginning with the bearers of Starčevo culture. Their number is not large and we can hardly talk about a developed manufacture, since they were made individually to meet the basic needs of the settlement (Antonović 2014a). From the very beginning of Starčevo culture there are adzes, axes, batons and pickaxes, and adzes dominate among the total number of finds. Among the ornamental finds, only the fragment of a green hoop from the Kaznica Rutak site is known and a chisel made of green slate from the Kneževi Vinogradi site. With the Sopot culture, the total number of stone finds and types increases. Artifacts were repaired multiple times and sometimes it is very difficult to follow a whole set of processing and use of individual items. This reductive process has led to very small dimensions of individual specimens. By studying traces of use, an attempt was made determine what the objects were used for, certainly an important factor in the community's survival. In addition to the usual traces of soft raw materials such as wood, there are also traces of polishing (e.g. black pigment) and hitting traces, especially with batons and tools used as bats in secondary use. In terms of typology, adzes are prevalent on the Sopot sites as well. One difference is that on the Osijek-Filipovica site, there is a significant share of perforated tools, which are rare among the finds form Debela šuma and Kazina-Rutak sites in all the research campaigns. Perforated tools show a wide variety of use. Virtually none of them have been completely preserved and they are often cracked around the perforation. Among the decorative objects, there is a smaller adze made of nephrite from the Stari Perkovci-Debela šuma site. Based on traces of use, it was found that polished stone artifacts were used for a whole range of actions. They were used as axes, adzes, chisels, wedges, mots, hammers, retouchers, smoothing tools, handstones, anvils. Based on traces on the proximal part, it was found that they were mounted onto a handle. It was also established that the design did not determine their function. Nevertheless, on the neolithic sites, the largest number of polished stone artifacts was used for cutting wood. Petrographic and mineral analyses were carried out in order to determine the raw material on a macroscopic basis and to provide the sources and origin of primary and secondary raw materials which could indicate their movement among the communities. Because of the proximity of the observed sites, but also of the established raw materials, it is entirely justified to believe that raw materials used in the production of polished stone artifacts originated from the surrounding hills, especially the Slavonian Mountains.

Item Type: PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: neolithic, Starčevo culture, Sopot culture, northeastern Croatia, polished stone tools, technology, typology
Subjects: Archaeology
Departments: Department of Archaeology
Supervisor: Težak-Gregl, Tihomila
Additional Information: PDS arheologije
Date Deposited: 29 May 2019 12:28
Last Modified: 29 May 2019 12:28

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