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Typological and chronological classification of Roman pottery from Siscia


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Miletić Čakširan, Ivana. (2019). Typological and chronological classification of Roman pottery from Siscia. PhD Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Archaeology.
(PDS Arheologija) [mentor Durman, Aleksandar].

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The typological and chronological classification of Roman pottery is the basis for the study of any Roman site. Other than finds from specific positions or specific types of pottery, the material from Siscia, the most important city in Roman Pannonia, as attested to by historical sources, has so far not been fully typologically and chronologically classified based on a complete analysis of Roman pottery. Therefore, the pottery from the territory of Siscia has not been included into expert publications to the extent that it deserves, although it is crucial for the study of the historical Pannonia. This paper was written with the goal of positioning Siscia as the point of reference for the study of the Roman period in Pannonia and the wider region. The basic analysis was conducted on pottery discovered at the Sv. Kvirin (St. Quirinus) and Povijesni arhiv (Historical archives) positions that were excavated in accordance with contemporary stratigraphic principles. Both positions are within the walls of the Roman Siscia. The Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv positions yielded a total of 1581 pottery fragments. The typological and chronological analysis of pottery was widened by the analysis of previously published material that is kept at the City Museum Sisak and the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb. A total of 46 different kinds of publications included over 1017 pottery fragments. The typological classifications revealed groups based on one or more categories: usage (function), characteristic production technology, origin/provenience, and morphological forms. The analysis of characteristic structures, forms, modes and ways of decorating showed or indicated the produce from different well-known workshop centers, and, thereby, the provenience of pottery forms that appeared in ancient Siscia. In the typological classification, the material was divided into table ware, pottery used in food preparation and serving, pottery used for storing food and beverages, pottery of special function, ceramic figurines, and pottery used in construction. The Povijesni arhiv and Sv. Kvirin positions yielded a total of 161 fragments of thin-walled pottery, and the previously published material includes a total of 337 examples. The analyzed finds differ based on production technique, fabric, form, and mode of decoration. Based on production technique, pottery thin-walled pottery was made in a mold and/or on a potter’s wheel out of purified clay or clay paste with inclusions, and was fired in a reduction or oxidation atmosphere. Typological categories include small bowls, glasses and cups. A total of 23 types of small bowls (TWP B. 1-23), 30 types of glasses (TWP G. TYPE 1-30) and 2 types of cups (TWP C. TYPE 1-2) have been established. The analysis revealed 17 different fabrics, pointing to the diversity and the possible number of workshops, but also to the different modes off decoration and firing of thin-walled pottery in a single workshop (TWP 1- 17). The most common fabric is TWP 6 that can be ascribed to Pannonian workshops. Motifs include barbotine decorations, ribbed scales, droplets, spiral vines, floral motifs, leaves, sandy decorations and incised nets. The quantity of the recovered material could indicate the workshop in Siscia as the place of production. The following fabrics could be ascribed to Pannonian workshops: TWP 10 and TWP 5, TWP 7, TWP 11, TWP 17; the following to workshops in Italy: TWP 2, and TWP 3, TWP 9, TWP 10, TWP 12, TWP 13, TWP 15 and TWP 16. The TWP 1, TWP 4 and TWP 14 are exceptions. The TWP 1 matches the fabric of thin-walled pottery from Baetica in color, which would be the first find of Baetican pottery in the Croatian part of Pannonia. The TWP 4 fabric matches pottery from Lyon in color, but the decorations indicate connections with motifs that were predominantly used on produce from Pannonian workshops. The forms of pottery of the TWP 8 fabric suggest that they were produced in Pannonian workshops, while the motifs reveal influences from Gallia. The TWP 14 fabric can be attributed to the La Butte workshop from Gallia. Thin-walled pottery can be dated to the period from the last decades of the 1st century BC, when the first produce from Italy appeared. During the time of Tiberius and Claudius, thin-walled pottery revealed a plethora of forms, modes of decoration and imports from Italy, Gallia, Baetica and other Pannonian workshops. The appearance of thin-walled pottery can be traced up until the 2nd century, when it was dominated by types of glasses made in Pannonian workshops. Some examples can be dated to the 3rd century. The analyzed material revealed, for the first time in Siscia, the presence of pottery with a black slip, characteristic of the middle Augustan period. It is proof that Roman military and trading routes were present in the area in Octavian’s period. So far, it had been registered in the southeastern Alpine region, and not on Pannonian territory. The find from Siscia is a confirmation of the written sources. The fragments can be ascribed to the Lamboglia 5/7 type of plate (BSP. TYPE 1) that can, in Siscia, be connected to the Augustan period. Out of all the types of Roman pottery from Sisak, terra sigillata is the most thoroughly studied due to Rajka Makjanić’s paper “Terra sigillata” that was published in the series: Siscia, Pannonia Superior International Series in Oxford in 1995. The author published a total of 327 examples of terra sigillata from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, most of which were discovered when the Kupa riverbed was cleaned in between 1913. and 1915. (Makjanić 1995: 43). The analyzed material provides an insight into the plethora of sigillata ceramic material that reflects the importance of Siscia in the Roman Empire. The paper brings an overview of previously discovered and published types of terra sigillata, as well as an analysis of sigillata from the Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions. Siscia yielded finds of Italian, Gaelic, African, Pannonian and Moesian sigillata. The Italian sigillata from Sisak was made in workshops in Arretium, northern Italy and Campania, and can be divided into smooth and relief Italian sigillata. A total of 32 different types of have been found.The Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions yielded the following types of terra sigillata: Haltern 9, Consp. 13, Consp 14, Conp 18, Consp 20, Consp 21, Consp 24, Consp 26, Consp 27, Consp 29, Consp 34, Consp 43, Consp 43-44, Consp 48, and Drag 11. The finds can be dated to the period between the last decades of the 1st century BC and the 2nd century. The analysis of material from recent archaeological excavations of the Augustan and the Tiberian-Claudian phase of Siscia revealed large amounts of relief pottery of the Aco and Sarius types, suggesting that it was one of the most significant military and trading centers during the Early Empire. With a total of 71 finds, Siscia is the Pannonian site that yielded the largest amount of relief pottery of the Aco and Sarius types. This paper includes all examples of previously published relief pottery from the positions of Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv, and the analysis of finds based on their form, fabric and decorative concept. The analysis of fragments from Siscia, which could be defined as belonging to a certain form, revealed a total of 31 fragments of Aco beaker and 40 examples of Sarius cups. The analysis of form and fabric revealed 2 types of Aco beaker (ACO TYPE 1a i b – 2). The analysis of decorations on Aco beaker revealed the following motifs: the Kommaregen triangles, vegetative motifs, zoomorphic decorations, ribbons/chains composed of beads, architectural elements, interweaving/weaved basket motifs, abstract motifs, and a group of undefined motifs. The analyzed material includes Aco type beaker with and without a sigillata slip. Glasses without a slip were being produced from about the middle of the 1st century BC, while the examples with a slip started to appear from the late Augustan-Tiberian period. In Siscia, the latter remained in use during Claudian times as well. Stamp include those of C. Aco C. L. Eros and Buccio Norbanus, but the analysis of stylistic and morphological features also revealed examples ascribed to the workshops of L. Norbanus or Stepanus Norbanus, C. Aco or C. Aco Diophanes, as well as the workshops of Optatus and L. Sarius Surus. In addition to the examples from northern Italian workshops situated between the Po River and Ravenna, relief pottery from workshops in Gallia was also recorded. The analysis of all published, as well as the finds from the Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv positions, revealed 40 examples ascribed to the Sarius cup type. Due to the fragmentation of finds, one form of the Sarius cup was defined (SAR. TYPE 1). Just like on Aco beaker, a large number of decorations were noted. The concept is uniform, but specific motifs are differently grouped. The recorded motifs include: vegetative, zoomorphic, geometrical, figurative and abstract ones. The motifs are freely or geometrically distributed on the vessels. The recorded workshops include those of Clemensa, L. Sarius Surus, Ivcundus, but some forms have also been recorded that display no analogies with the previously discovered Sarius cup types. The finds can be dated to the Augustan and the Tiberian-Claudian period. Sisak yielded terra sigillata from southern Gallia - La Grafenesque, central Gallia - Lezoux, eastern Gallia, and the Rheinzabern and Westerndorf, Pfaffenhofen workshops, and can be divided into smooth and relief sigillata. The Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv positions yielded the following types of sigillata from Gallia: Drag. 18/31, Drag 33, Drag 36, Drag 37, Drag 31, Lud Tk', Drag 43, Drag 54, and the exceptionally rare find of marbleized sigillata from the Graufesenque workshop, ascribed to the Ritt. 12 type. The import of produce from Gallia was dated to the time between the middle of the 1st and the 3rd century. In addition to the sigillata from Italy and Gallia, Siscia also yielded some African sigillata. So far, 33 examples of African sigillata have been published, and the Povijesni Arhiv and Sv. Kvirin positions yielded a total of 13 fragments. The analysis revealed almost equal amounts of vessels of productions A, C and D (30 - 35%), with 2% of finds of the A/D production. African goods reached Pannonia across the Adriatic, Italy and Noricum (Gabler 2012, Pröttel 1996, Hárshegyi & Ottományi 2013: 476-480, Gabler 1988: 32, Makjanić 1985: 50). The forms discovered in Siscia include bowls (85%) and plates (15%). According to Hayes’ typology, the following types were recorded: Hayes 3C, Hayes 14/17, Hayes 32, Hayes 50, Hayes 52, Hayes 53, Hayes 58, Hayes 60, Hayes 61, Hayes 62, Hayes 67, Hayes 70, Hayes 81, and Hayes 91. The fragments can be dated to the period between the 2nd and the second half of the 6th century. The appearance of African sigillata can be connected to the prosperous rule of Hadrian, a period from which Siscia also yielded finds of luxurious Mediterranean goods. The beginning of trade and substantial import of African goods can be connected to the period after the mint in Siscia was founded during the middle of the 3rd century, and it lasted until the mint stopped functioning at the middle of the 5th century. Pannonian sigillata appeared in the 2nd and 3rd century as a new type of sigillata ware with relief decorations. The motifs include those that are specific of Pannonian, Moesian, as well as those from different workshops, such as Lezoux, Trier, and Rheinzabern, and motifs from African workshops that were portrayed on vessels in a new way (Vikić Belančić 1967: 33-34; Brukner 1981: 30-32). Based on the analysis of relief decorations and fabrics defined in the Sisak collection from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, the following workshops were recorded: Viminacium-Margum, dated to the 2nd - 3rd century, and the one from Pannonia Inferior that was, due to its unknown location, marked as workshop X. However, due to recent research, the suggested location of this workshop is in Cibalae (Makjanić 1995: 73; Pl. 73, 74; Iskra-Janošić 2001: 121; Leleković 2007: 81; Ožanić Roguljić 2016: 21). The analyzed material included one fragment of relief Pannonian sigillata from the ViminaciumMargum workshop. Relief pottery was, based on the mode of surface processing, placed into a separate category of table ware. The group of relief pottery includes Adriatic vessels on a foot, as well as relief pottery from Corinth, Cnidus and Egyptian vessels. As a separate form, vessels on a foot can be ascribed to the Dragendorff 11. Based on the fabric, decorations and the slip, the analyzed material indicates that relief pottery was produced in Adriatic workshops. These finds are the first of their kind on the territory of Pannonia that have been dated to the first half of the 1st century. A special group of relief pottery includes relief pottery from Corinth and Cnidus. The relief pottery from Corinth is characterized by the form of cylindrical vessels (pyxis) with differently shaped rims (COR. REL. TYPE 1). It is dated to the period between the second half of the 2nd and the end of the 3rd century. The group of relief pottery includes a find of a relief zoomorphic handle that is being kept in the collection of the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, and that was the handle of a relief ceramic patera portraying a ram’s head (CNID. REL. TYPE 1). Relief pottery from the workshop centers in Asia Minor and Cnidus has also been found at sites on the Adriatic, and can be dated to the 2nd century. Egyptian glazed ware forms a separate group of table ware. It was analyzed separately from other glazed pottery based on the specific category of its origin. It was included into the group of Roman pottery because of its form, which appears in Roman contexts in both Egypt and Siscia. The find of the Egyptian glazed cylindrical vase (EG. TYPE 1) is very important for the periods connected to Augustan times, and this is the first find of its kind in Pannonia and Noricum. A separate group of pottery, Pannonian slip ware, was produced in several centers in Pannonia as fine table ware (bowls, plates, and glasses, rarely lids and jugs). It was fired in an oxidation or reduction atmosphere with a grey, black or red slip. The slip can be glossy, have a metallic sheen, or can be matte. The fragment are either undecorated or decorated by rouletting (impressing small wheels or sticks) and/or stamping (Adler-Wölfl 2004: 9; Nagy 2017: 6). The Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions yielded 57 fragments of Pannonian pottery with a slip. The analysis established that there were 7 different fabrics of pottery in Siscia. A total of 56% of the fragments have a light to dark grey slip, and 29% have an orange to red slip. The typological analysis revealed 10 types of glasses (PSW. G. TYPE 1-10), 4 types of plates (PSW. PL. TYPE 1-4), and 10 types of bowls (PSW. B. TYPE 1-10). The analysis of stamped decorations from Siscia revealed Pannonian ware with a slip of both the southern and the western Pannonian group. The analysis helped establish that Pannonian ware was present in Siscia between the rules of Trajan and Septimius Severus. Table ware includes the group of glazed table ware that appears in the 3rd and 4th century, and sporadically also in the 5th. The Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv positions yielded 11 fragments of glazed table ware that were typologically divided into jugs (GW. TYPE 1), a glazed patera (GW. TYPE 2), a glass (GW. TYPE 3A and 3B), and undefined forms. The glazed patera with relief decorations on the handle is, based on analogies with finds from other sites, ascribed a cult-related function, and was dated to the second half of the 2nd century. The analysis and the typological and chronological classification of Germanic tribe pottery, discovered at Pov. Arhiv. Position, make a great scientific contribution to the study of Siscia. in 6 th century during the Late Antiquity and Migration period. In addition, it was discovered in a layer that contained a repertoire of Roman pottery dated to the Late Antiquity. Two vessel fragments from the Pov. Arhiv position can be ascribed to Langobard and maybe Saxon pottery. Based on the production technology and morphology, 2 types were defined: a bowl with stamped decorations depicting a series of circles with crosses shown in the positive, and, below it, a series of ovals with striped imprints (GERM. TYPE 1), and a jug with a tubular spout (GERM. TYPE 2). Base on the datation of a ceramic vessel from Sisak into the 6th century, this find can be connected to the period between 537, when the Lombards appeared as a new force in the western territories of the Sava-Drava-Danube interfluve, and the time when they moved to Italy. The analysis of table ware, based on morphological characteristics, established types of different fabrics and provenience: glass, cup, kantharos, plate, jug/vase. The review of all published examples of each type is followed by the analysis of finds from the Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions. A total of 23 types of glasses (G. TYPE 1-23) were defined based on the shape of the rim, body and base. A separate group of glasses was defined to include those with ribs, dated to the period between the 2nd and the 3rd century. The analysis of previously published, as well as those from the Pov. Arhiv position, revealed 4 types of cups (C. TYPE 1-2). A special group includes the type of kantharos decorated by polished waves and zigzag decorations that can be dated to the first half of the 1st century (KANT. TYPE 1-2). The Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv positions yielded 59 fragments of plates, and they include forms typical of the local Late Iron Age tradition, as well as Italian and provincial forms that display Italian fashion to a smaller or greater extent. The analysis of both previously published, and forms from these two positions, revealed a division into 15 types (PL. TYPE 1-15). The paper brings all previously published jugs and vases, but their typological and chronological classification was made based on the finds from the Pov. Arhiv and Sv. Kvirin positions. Due to their fragmentation, the types were defined based on the shape of the rims and necks. A total of 48 types were defined (J. TYPE 1-48). The group of pottery used in food processing, preparation and serving includes bowls, pots, mortars and lids. A special group includes kitchen ware from the eastern Mediterranean and Africa (I. MED. W TYPE 1, AFR. C. W. TYPE 1-4). Bowls are the form that makes it possible to track the preservation of the Pannonian La Tène tradition, the import of new Roman types, but also the production of new forms that were created by merging the La Tène heritage and the imported forms. A special group of bowls includes colanders, tripods and vessels with tubular spouts. Bowls were fired in an oxidation or reduction atmosphere, display a uniform or different colors on their inside and outside surfaces. Bowls that were used as table ware have a single-colored slip, or one made in the marbling technique. A total of 38 different types of bowls were defined (B. TYPE 1-38). The datation of each type was made based on the stratigraphic context, and only some were dated based on analogies from different sites. A total of 1 type of colander (COL. TYPE 1), 4 types of vessels on a tripod (TR. TYPE 1-4), and 1 type of vessel with a tubular spout (VTS. TYPE 1) was defined. Pots are the most numerous form discovered at all positions in Siscia. Due to use of different terminology in describing the form and level of processing, as well as different ways of presenting, it was impossible to make a systematization of previously published finds. The paper brings an overview of previously published pots. The analysis includes exclusively pots discovered at the Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions, i.e. a total of 384 pot fragments. Due to the poor state of preservation of some finds, the typology was based on the shape and position of the rim in relation to the body of the pot. Based on production technology, the difference can be seen between pots that were made by hand, and those made on the potter’s wheel. The cross-sections of the pots indicate different firing conditions, both a reduction and an oxidation atmosphere. A total of 11 types of hand-made pots were defined, 9 of which were discovered in Roman layers and display Pannonian La Tène forms, and two pots that are typical of the subsequent Roman periods (P.h. TYPE 1-11). The pots made on a potter’s wheel were divided into 60 types (P. TYPE 1-60). The Augustan period is important due to the discovery of an Auerberg pot, while the Late Antiquity revealed different ways of processing clay paste and producing vessels. The typological and chronological classification of previously published finds, and those from the Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions, revealed 5 types of mortars based on production technology: mortars with inclusions of sand on the inside, glazed mortars, mortars with a slip, mortars decorated by the marbling technique, and sigillata mortars. Based on the shape of the rim, 17 types of mortars defined (M. TYPE 1-17), excluding the sigillata Drag. 43 type of mortar that was included into the group of terra sigillata from Gallia. In Siscia, mortars appeared between the Augustan period and the Late Antiquity. The lack of stamped mortars can be explained through Siscia-based production that made it unnecessary to import larger amounts of this group of pottery. The previously published material includes the stamp of Cosconius, probably the artisan that was, so far, recorded on tegulae dated to the first half of the 1st century. Being an integral part of pottery used in food processing, preparation and serving, the paper brings an analysis of 20 types of lids and 13 different lid handles (L. TYPE 1-20). The analyzed layers from the two selected positions also yielded baking lids made by hand (BL. TYPE 1). Based on their origin, the group of kitchen ware includes forms connected with the eastern Mediterranean and African territories. So far no kitchen ware of eastern Mediterranean origin from Sisak has been published. The analysis revealed that the bowl from the Kovnica position can be ascribed to the eastern Mediterranean form of bowl with two handles (EMED. TYPE 1) that is analogous to the Hayes Knossos 2 type. In Siscia, eastern Mediterranean ware appeared when the trade of Aegean wine began. This type of bowl was also produced in Noricum and Pannonia, as a local product based off of imports from the eastern Mediterranean, and can be dated to the time between the 1st and the 3rd century. African kitchen ware has also not been recorded in previous publications. The group of African kitchen ware includes 4 types: plate-pan (AFR. TYPE 1), dated to between the 3rd and 4th century, and the Uzita 3 type vessel of large volume, dated to between 200 and 400 (AFR. TYPE 2. The find of a large pot of the Bonifay 65B type (AFR. TYPE 3) is important, because it is extremely rare and can be dated to the 6th century. African kitchen ware also includes the Hayes 182 type of lid (AFR. TYPE 4), dated to between the 3rd and the 4th century. Vessles with a large diameter used for storing food and liquids include dolia and amphorae, as well as lids and covers that appear alongside this kind of pottery. The analysis of previously published, as well as 34 fragments of dolia from the Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions, revealed 4 types (D. TYPE 1-4) that can be dated to the time between the 1st and the 4th century. A total of 238 examples of previously published amphora fragments from Roman Siscia, as well as 75 finds from the Sv. Kvirin and Povijesni Arhiv positions were analyzed, and the results suggest that this material is of great importance, seeing as it revealed the largest number of amphora types in Pannonia. The analysis of previously published finds revealed 20 types of amphorae: Greco-Italian amphora of the Lamboglia 2, Dressel 6A, Dressel 6B, and Dressel 2-4 types, the Pannonian type of amphora with a straight base, Dressel 9 & 10 similis Lyon, Pascual 1, amphora from Rhodes, Dressel 20, Dressel 23, Dressel 7-11, Beltrán 2A, Camulodunum 189, Schörgendorfer 558, Haltern 70, Forlimpopoli, Portorecanati, Dressel 8 with an inscription, African and Late Roman amphora - LRA 1. The analysis of published stamps from the Sv. Kvirin and Pov. Arhiv positions revealed that Sisak has, so far, yielded a total of 15 stamps connected to different amphora workshops. The ceramic material from Siscia includes 5 amphora covers (corks) (AC. TYPE 1-5) and 2 lids (AL. TYPE 1-2). Special group of pottery was formed that includes vessels with depictions of the human body (ANTROP. V. TYPE 1-8), censers (C. TYPE 1-13), lamps and ungentaria (UNG. TYPE 1), saving boxes (SB. TYPE 1), ink bowls (IB. TYPE 1), weights (W. TYPE 1), crustuli (CRU. TYPE 1) and coasters (COA. TYPE 1-2). The territory of Roman Siscia yielded numerous fragments of lamps, both imported ones and those made in Pannonia. A large contribution to the study of Roman lamps from Sisak was made by B. Vikić Belančić who analyzed lamps from the collection of the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb (Vikić Belančić 1971; 1975). The analysis of published material revealed that 21 types of lamps were found in Sisak, based on the existing typology of Roman lamps. A review of previously published lamps, as well as those found at the analyzed positions in Siscia, revealed a total of 36 different stamps. Depending on the period and fashion, lamps were imported from workshops in the Po River valley in the Cisalpine region and the area of Aquileia since the 1st century to the Late Antiquity, as well as from northern Africa in the period between the 4th and the 6th century. In Siscia, local workshops were established very early, and started to produce types based off of imported ones. Based on the discovered molds, the production of the following types has been confirmed: Ivanyi III and IV, VIII, XI, XII or XII, XVI, and pinecone-shaped lamps. This paper brings an overview of previously published ceramic figurines, especially the group find of 16 clay figurines that were thought to be the products a potter or sculptor (Šeper 1954: 305, 314). The large number of clay figurines and molds can be seen as evidence supporting the existence a Siscia-based workshop. Architectural pottery is a very common find in every excavation, while publications refer to the rare examples of complete finds, or those that are specific due to their decorations or stamps. A city-based workshop for the production of bricks has been confirmed based on the finds of kilns and inscriptions on bricks. The mark of the workshop of Siscia is SISC. Apart from satisfying local needs, the workshop’s produce was exported. Imported bricks from other workshops were used in Siscia as well. Publications record the following stamps: Appiani (Ljubić 1879: 72) and Pansiana, kept at the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb (Vikić-Belančić 1967: 36, n: 152), as well as the bricks fragments with the ‘Sex·A(p)’ stamp from the Željeznički kolodvor position in Sisak (Kristović & Jerončić 2016: 19, Željeznički kolodvor, SU 1622, SF 2012). The paper iscusses the possible locations of pottery and brick workshops based on data from sources that deal with kilns. Siscia, as a large Roman city, must have had a well-developed local pottery and brick production that was made better by high-quality clay and the proximity of river flows. Pottery and brick workshops were situated outside the city walls. Expert publications record the discovery of both brick-making and pottery-firing kilns, as well as molds. Although some locations mentioned in the publications are known, the data is sparse, and there are no analyses of the discovered material or documented layouts. When studying the positions outside the city walls where kilns were discovered, it was established that Sisak city brickyards were functioning on the same locations between the 18th and the 20th century. This information helps explain the poor preservation of structures that were part of pottery and brick workshops in Siscia. It can be concluded that the significance of Siscia, and the historical events connected to it, can be traced through ceramic finds. The paper includes a total of 502 different types of all kinds of Roman pottery, including previously unknown types, those that were previously not recorded in Siscia, and some that are unique in the entire Pannonian territory. The typological and chronological classification of Roman pottery from Siscia presented in this paper can now be used as the base for future research of each specific type of pottery. The analysis conducted on pottery from Siscia will also contribute to the understanding of architectural heritage and urbanism of Siscia through all 7 centuries of its development.

Item Type: PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: Siscia, Sisak, pottery, typological classification, chronological classification, Roman pottery, Roman Pannonia, continuity, kilns
Subjects: Archaeology
Departments: Department of Archaeology
Supervisor: Durman, Aleksandar
Additional Information: PDS Arheologija
Date Deposited: 14 May 2019 09:23
Last Modified: 14 May 2019 09:23

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