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Kritika mehanicističkog poimanja prirode kroz paradigmu ekoloških pokreta


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Jeličić, Nikola. (2014). Kritika mehanicističkog poimanja prirode kroz paradigmu ekoloških pokreta. Diploma Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Sociology. [mentor Cifrić, Ivan].

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Man's relationship to nature has changed throughout history, especially in Western civilization. In ancient times the prevailing cyclical nature pictures, nature and had no beginning and no end. With the advent of Christianity, nature takes on a clear beginning and end. Man as the most perfect creature of God is at the top and claim ownership of all things. But like ancient and medieval societies did not want to dominate nature because the true purpose of man is not in this world than the next. Rediscovery of ancient culture, but also the invention of the printing press, there is a revolution in Western thought that we call the Renaissance. Traditional dogmatic knowledge is increasingly unable to meet the new empirical evidence which comes to using new technology such as telescopes, but unempirical mathematical proofs. This new scientific discoveries spurred a revolution in thought and directly influenced the creation of the mechanistic world view that dominates today. Its main representatives are Bacon, Descartes and Newton. Bacon advocated empirical knowledge that will be useful to man, and that will help him to master nature. Descartes separates matter from spirit and makes it a machine that is lifeless and can be mathematically explained. Newton finally using mathematics expresses the natural laws that are eternal and thus creates an image of man as master over nature. Enlightenment, admiringly scientific discoveries mechanicism and takes him for the ideal of science which should equally be applied to the company to release the traditions and dogmatic ignorance. Thereby laying the foundations for the development of modern societies that occur after the French and Industrial Revolution. The main determinant of modern societies is the rationale on which everything is based. Power becomes rationally based, work is becoming increasingly specialized due to the widespread application of the technology and industrial production. But rationality carries with it negative consequences such as the exploitation of workers, natural resources, wars, etc. all in order to make bigger profits. Competition among men did not lead to the well-being of the whole society, but one made richer and more powerful, and the other poor and the weak. The technology also has not released the man of hard physical work, but it is done and replaceable part of the machine. From these characteristics, we can read out the causes of modern ecological crisis arising out of the system. The destruction of nature, due to increasing demand for energy, raw materials and space for life goes hand in hand with the exploitation of man. Bureaucratic authority in connection with a large capital, or multiacionalnim corporations forming system in which signifies progress for technological progress and the accumulation of material wealth which leads to the devastation of natural resources, and the exploitation of man. Ecological movements of the 70s and 80s of the 20th century was characterized by a reaction against the system. Their main characteristics are uninstitutionalised, transsclass and mass. But by consolidating and formalizing they become part of the same system against which they fought. In this way, the system is able to absorb and exploit the potential of the environmental movement to further streamline marketed and legitimacy of their position. For this reason it is necessary to start from the organic community or local level to the global and replace the mechanistic picture of the holistic nature. Holistic perspective elevates a man not to place the master of nature, but sees it as an integral part of nature, without which it can not survive.

Item Type: Diploma Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mechanicism, holism, ecological movements, rationalization
Subjects: Sociology
Departments: Department of Sociology
Supervisor: Cifrić, Ivan
Date Deposited: 12 May 2016 11:39
Last Modified: 12 May 2016 11:39

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