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Nacionalno pitanje kao uzrok terorizma- ETA i slučaj Baskije


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Sever, Magdalena. (2010). Nacionalno pitanje kao uzrok terorizma- ETA i slučaj Baskije. Diploma Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Sociology. [mentor Bilandžić, Mirko].

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As we said before, when all ethnic minorities in the world would realised their wishes for indenpendence state, the number od states in the world would be doubled. After the First world war, american president T.W. Wilson emphesed how every nation has it's right for self determination. In fact, that concept promotes the idea how every hation has right to decide about it's political status, state, government system and economic, social and cultural development without foreign influences. The United nation's Charter mentions the right for self determination in articles 1 and 55 but without deep explanation. Really, after the 1919 several dominant european monarchies have decaied. But number of candidates for indenpendence state was larger than degree planned by world super powers. On the list of „small nations“ and losers was Basque people also. So they started to practice terrorism because under faschist regime in Spain they couldn't fight for their rights by democratic way. Basque nationalism has it's roots in the end of 19 th century but in that time it had romantic and catholic mark. Basque region enjoyed high degree of authonomy through the history but Franco's faschist regime violently eliminated it. Under the hard repression militant basque nationalism rised and in it's beginnings it was the core of opposition. In it's beginnings Basque ETA enjoyed symphaties and support as movement that fought against dictatorship but today ETA lost it's credibility because in it's attacks over 800 people was killed and lot of them were civil victims. After fourty years of fear Basque people is tired of violence and terrorism. Today Basque region enjoys high degree of political autonomy and Basque people can amphase their ethnic belonging. In the future the ultimate solvation would be possibly illections for Basque separation from Spain but request demands of ETA cannot be understand by world polulation because Basque situation is not „unbereable“ any more. On the Europe teritory there are many ethnic minorities which are different from majority nations in their states but separatist demands are appeased because most of minorities enjoy high degree of autonomy and human rights. Today's time has the respect of human and nation self determination right put as moral and legal obligation buit inspite of that terrorist attacks have never been more often like in period of modern democracy. In the last century hundreds of terrorist organisations have rised putting focus on injustice and hypocrisy of global policy. The main causes of terrorism lie in discrimination of certain national, social and religious groups and they are highly connected with acting of ruling world organisations and most developed states. Most of terrorist organisations have rised under that circumstances. Some of them, like Irish Republican Army, have credits in realising their nation rights. Today in european democratic society, including Basque region, ethnic minorities enjoy high degree of human rights. But that did not satisfied militant Basque separatists who are still terrorists. But they have become „lonely wolfs“ because they do not have support of Basque people. That is metaphisical dimension of terrorism that has become myth and fantasy, some kind of modus vivendi. World democratic system take pains in combating terrorism but it is still highly vunerable because it did not focused on elimination of causes of terrorism. So today we only see circle of violence that is not to be stopped soon. Terrorism cannot be stopped without eliminating it's causes. All until respect of human rights, including nation's rights, wouldn't be priority of international community terrorism will be one of the biggest world problems. Militant Basque nationalists have still not put down the weapons even through they have lost suppors of their nation, but the part of blame is on Spanish government also because they have always been orientated od violent solution, throwing off every posibility of compromise. Today Basque ETA is not what it was before- the mose active and dangerous European terrorist organisation but it is still some kind of danger. History has show that violence cannot be beaten with violence so the time for peace is the only perspective for the future.

Item Type: Diploma Thesis
Subjects: Sociology
Departments: Department of Sociology
Supervisor: Bilandžić, Mirko
Date Deposited: 14 Jun 2016 13:09
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2016 13:09

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