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Development and testing the model of motivational and multimedia instructional message


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Bistrović, Jelena. (2017). Development and testing the model of motivational and multimedia instructional message. PhD Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Psychology
Department of Information Science.
(Poslijediplomski doktorski studij informacijskih i komunikacijskih znanosti) [mentor Lauc, Tomislava and Kuterovac Jagodić, Gordana].

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Instructional multimedia message is a message exchanged between the sender and the recipient in order to foster learning. This message is formed by combining content in various formats and it should be designed in a way that human mind works. Research shows that there are certain gender differences in communicating with computers, thinking about them, as well as differences in the motives of their use. Gender differences in the approaches and preferences towards computer content are also documented. Therefore, during development and creation multimedia instruction messages it is necessary to take care of these differences so that the instructive messages are appropriate and effective for pupils of both gender. This thesis, in an innovative way, integrate motivational and instructional role of multimedia by forming the motivational and instructional multimedia messages. Proposed model integrates rules for designing multimedia instructional messages and motivational aspects of learning. The model was obtained by using principles of multimedia instructional design as well as principles of motivational multimedia. The aim of this thesis was to examine the efficiency of the use of multimedia presentations in the introductory stage of lessons of school subject Nature and Society and to examine whether gender differences exist in preferences towards multimedia instructive messages mediated in different ways. To answer research questions a field experiment in primary school was conducted. It was conducted during regular school lessons with a sample of 170 pupils (51,8% boys, 48,2% girls) in the 4th grade of two primary schools in district Koprivnica - Križevci and two from Međimurje district, average age from 9 till 10 years. Pupils were divided into two groups, experimental (N=97, 51,5% boys, 48,4% girls) and comparison group (N=73, 52% boys, 48% girls). In the experimental group multimedia instructional messages were used in the introductory part of the lesson Nature and Society and in the comparison group the introductory and motivational activities were carried out using classical teaching aids such as posters, pictures, conversation etc. The groups were balanced by pupil’s gender, their prior knowledge, previous achievement in school, their socioeconomic status, family structure, computer availability and the pupil’s previous experience with computer technology. Pupils parent give us those data. For the purposes of experimental research, a model of motivational and instructional multimedia messages was implemented by using instructional material designed by Microsoft PowerPoint and Prezi. The model consisted of six groups of activities: associations, quizzes and crossword, interactive stories, interactive maps, video and visual stimulus. For each group there were three equivalent activities. The main independent variable was included in the experimental treatment through the use of motivational and instructional multimedia messages (in the experimental group) or use of conventional instructional messages (in the comparison group). The dependent variables were knowledge that pupils obtained during the experiment (pupils learning outcomes and understanding of the material), the pupil’s satisfaction with motivational and instructional multimedia messages and their preferences for certain instructional messages. Before conducting the experiment, the initial level of pupil’s knowledge was determined and after the experimental classes, after 18 lessons during the two months, the level of pupil’s adopted knowledge was verified. The acquisition of knowledge was evaluated by two knowledge tests, while the interest, edification and amusement of used multimedia messages, as pupil’s motivation indicators and the preferences of individual multimedia and motivational instruction messages, are estimated by rating scales in specially constructed questionnaires. The model was also evaluated by teachers through the discussion in focus groups. Based on the research goal, three hypotheses were formulated: H1: Pupils who learn Nature and Society by using motivational and instructional multimedia messages in the introductory stage of the lesson will be more motivated and have better achievement than pupils who will learn by using traditional teaching tools in the introductory stage of the lesson - original items, school board, textbooks, print tasks. H2: Learning improvement with an introductory motivational and instructional multimedia message will be more evident among boys than among girls. H3: Among different multimedia techniques girls will prefer interactive story and visual stimulus while boys will prefer video and interactive maps. The results showed that pupils who used motivational and multimedia instructional message in the introductory part of the lesson evaluate introductory motivational school content more interesting, entertaining and more instructive and better and more fully adopt knowledge than pupil’s who did not use the multimedia and motivational instructive messages. Gender differences in knowledge acquisition have not been established while specific gender preferences for some types of multimedia instructional messages have been established. The research indicated that the model of motivational and multimedia instructional message is appropriate for use in primary education activities of the school subject Nature and Society. Pupils from experimental group agreed that presented multimedia and motivational presentations were very interesting and inspiring for learning because they reminded them of a game, they were dynamic and entertaining. Therefore, Mayer's principles could be supplemented by principles which would then lead the whole multimedia design process to creation of motivational multimedia: gamification, mystery (enigma), visualization and sonority. Consequently, scientific contribution of this research consists in developing a model of motivational and multimedia instructional message that takes into account the features of a properly designed multimedia instructive message and the motivational aspect of learning. The results of the research enabled the fulfilment of existing principles of multimedia design by the principles of creating motivational multimedia.

Item Type: PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: multimedia, multimedia instructional message, motivation, the introductory stage of the lesson, learning outcome, gender preferences
Subjects: Information sciences > Social-humanistic informatics
Psychology > Razvojna psihologija
Departments: Department of Psychology
Department of Information Science
Supervisor: Lauc, Tomislava and Kuterovac Jagodić, Gordana
Additional Information: Poslijediplomski doktorski studij informacijskih i komunikacijskih znanosti
Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2017 09:15
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2017 09:15

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