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Plemićka obitelj Kulmer na prijelazu stoljeća


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Kolar, Luka. (2016). Plemićka obitelj Kulmer na prijelazu stoljeća. Diploma Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of History. [mentor Iveljić, Iskra].

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The Kulmer family originally belongs to the Carinthian nobility, and their name was first mentioned in sources dating from the second half of the fourteenth century. The Kulmer family came to the Croatian territory in the beginning of the eighteenth century, in the service of the imperial military, and was soon granted the status of nobility in the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia. Through marriages, they acquired numerous estates in Croatia and Slavonia, and influenced political and economic development in their new homeland; Franjo Kulmer during the period of national revival and Miroslav Kulmer jr. at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century were especially noticeable in this regard. At the turn of the century, the family has been split according to the location of estates into three branches in Croatia: the Cernik, Krapina, and Šestine branches. The largest family estate was owned by Miroslav Kulmer jr., who took over the leading position in the family and became one of the most prominent people in the political and economic life of Croatia. The principal source of income from his modernized estate came from forests and vineyards, but Miroslav did not stop there – with his capital, he entered the largest financial institution in Croatia, the Prva hrvatska štedionica (Erste Kroatische Sparkasse), becoming its president. Miroslav's entrepreneurship was strongly affected by the policy of the Hungarian government, which obstructed modernization of Croatia, so in the mid-1880s he entered politics, as to provide himself, as well as Croatia, a more favorable economic position. However, the strong hand politics of the viceroy Khuen-Héderváry forced him to leave politics and he dedicated himself to his private business. He was absent from politics for almost two decades, and returned when the Croat-Serb coalition was established, feeling it would now be possible to break the Hungarian pressure on Croatia. He built his political power upon economic strength, and it was him who “pulled the strings,” determining the direction of the Coalition's politics. As a traditional nobleman loyal to Viennese center, he did not completely agree with the pro-Yugoslav politics of the Coalition and, moved by the contemporary political situation, he attempted to direct it towards cooperation with Vienna. Despite this, he maintained good relations with the leading members of the Coalition who saw the solution of Croatian problems in Serbia, which allowed him to participate in the creation of new government and to retain his pre-war position. As president of Prva hrvatska štedionica and of Hrvatsko-slavonsko gospodarsko društvo (Croatian-Slavonian economic association) – functions which he combined for the benefit of both institutions and their users – he contributed to the improvement of economic situation in Croatia. Kulmer ran successful business until a couple of years after the end of the First World War the Belgrade regime decided to destroy his economic strength by attacking Prva hrvatska štedionica and Hrvatskoslavonsko gospodarsko društvo. The global economic crisis, helped by the Belgrade government, caused his impoverishment, as he took upon himself as Noblesse oblige to pay off debts of both institutions. Miroslav was a skilled athlete; he hiked, engaged in motorsports, shooting, and golf. He was also a philanthropist who supported various sport associations and charities aiming at the sick and the poor. The Kulmer family were patrons of the Šestine parish, and built a public school on their estate. On his estate in Cernik, Aleksandar Kulmer studied the history of his family and collected various arms, sigils, and charters of European and local noble families. His left a significant portion of his historical research to be used by younger generations.

Item Type: Diploma Thesis
Subjects: History
Departments: Department of History
Supervisor: Iveljić, Iskra
Date Deposited: 27 Apr 2018 08:38
Last Modified: 27 Apr 2018 08:38

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