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Sumerska kraljevska ideologija u ranodinastičkim kraljevskim natpisima


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Stipić, Marina. (2017). Sumerska kraljevska ideologija u ranodinastičkim kraljevskim natpisima. Diploma Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of History. [mentor Osterman, Jasmina].

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Royal inscriptions often have no real function, but are used only to spread royal propaganda. As such, they are very subjective and I don’t consider them to be a sufficient source for extensive and objective research of any reign. In this thesis I gathered 284 royal inscripitons form Early Dynastic city – state of Lagaš and described in as much detail as possible each of three elements of royal ideology I found important. First element is constituted of two royal titles, lugal and ensi2. As shown previously, they, except in their names, don’t differ at all. The most important tasks any Early Dynastic ruler of Lagaš has to do is build monumental temples, palaces and canals and to win as much wars and territory as possible. Considering the spatiotemporal restrictions and inability to exactly date inscriptions, it is not possible to conclude if rulers use both titles in the same time. No ruler uses two different titles (reffering to himself) in a single inscription, but Ur Naše and Eannatum use both titles throughout their reigns, and they do so for no apparent reason. Ur Nanše mostly uses the lugal title, while Eannatum mostly uses the ensi2 one. Both Akurgal and Eannatum’s heirs use the ensi2 title, except for Urukagina, who uses the lugal title, but is also an usurper. Also, rulers mostly address their predeccessors with the same title they use on a given inscription, except for Akurgal, who, despite using the ensi2 title, addresses his father, Ur Nanše, as lugal. The same differentiation is visible in one of Enmetena’s inscriptions. Foreign rulers’ titles often depend on a current political situation and inter-city relations, but, again, they are often given the same title a given Lagashite ruler uses himself. Rulers of Umma usualy carry the ensi2 title or are simply addressed as lu2, which isn’t a title at all (it translates as “a man, person”). Mesilim, an earlier ruler of Kiš, is always addressed as lugal, and so is an unnamed ruler of Akšak. Also, gods are always given the lugal title. Second element is constituted of royal epithets, additions to the title used by rulers to demonstrate legitimacy of their reign and connection to the gods of Sumerian pantheon. In this thesis, I divided the epithets into four groups, depending on their content. Groups include patronimics, epithets that attest temple building activities, epithets that connect a ruler with the gods and epithets about ruler’s character. I consider patronimics to be an evidence of inheritance of the throne. Urukagina doesn’t use any patronimics, hence, he is an usurper (which is also attested in other sources). Epithets that directly connect ruler to a certain god sometimes refer to the ritual of “sacred wedding”. Inscriptions show a strong connection to the gods, but there still is no deification of rulers and rulers don’t yet consider themselves gods. Some even claim they have personal gods, Šul-MUŠxPA being one of those gods, who act as mediators between rulers and gods. Third element is depiction of rulers on royal inscriptions. Despite being rare, they are very standardized. Rulers are shown as bald, half – naked figures, wearing only long skirts. They often have arms and hands positioned in praying manner. Sometimes they are followed by goddesses (i.e. Nanše follows Ur Nanše). They are also the largest depicted figures, second largest being “normal” Sumerians and the smallest being goddesses. The only variation is represented in Eannatum’s Vulture stele, where the ruler is depicted also as a warrior – king, riding chariot and wearing one shoulder dress. All in all, Early Dynastic rulers of Lagaš seem to be autocrats. They are the most important, highest ranked figures in society, close to the gods (even take over their function as protectors of cities), but they’re still not divinized. Also, they supervise everything that happens in Lagaš, Girsu or Nigin, build monumental temples and canals, even supervise priests and religious rituals. Even though they use two different royal titles, they exhibit no real changes in their governance.

Item Type: Diploma Thesis
Subjects: History
Departments: Department of History
Supervisor: Osterman, Jasmina
Date Deposited: 04 May 2018 08:29
Last Modified: 04 May 2018 08:29

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