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Value oriented communication


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Kirinić, Giovanna. (2018). Value oriented communication. PhD Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Information Science.
(Poslijediplomski doktorski studij informacijskih i komunikacijskih znanosti) [mentor Bakić-Tomić, Ljubica].

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The doctoral dissertation entitled Values oriented communication' by the author Giovanna Kirinic focuses on the value oriented communication of elementary school teachers, since communication is the most frequently used tool by teachers for education, who influence and assist in shaping the attitudes and worldview of pupils through everyday interaction. The aim of the research has been to determine the attributes of value oriented communication: the value system of teachers and their communication profile, which consisted of determining the dimensions communication style as well as the level of communication etiquette. This offered us a clearer picture of the basic communication competences of teachers. The main research question was aimed at determining whether a significant correlation exists between individual aspects of teacher’s communication profile, which further consists of communication style and communication etiquette, as well as the human value system of teachers. Research until now on the universality of human values has been done by Schwartz (1992; 1994; 2012), who corroborated their existence by his research, which included 80 countries all over the world. The results of his research have been used as a foundation for creating and enhancing his universal human values structure theory as well as confirming that despite linguistic, cultural, religious and other differences, all values could be classified into ten types of values which are universal to all humans and that the only differences could be found in their hierarchy, with the content remaining the same. De Vries studies communications styles and used a very delicate questionnaire in order to define three positive and three negative aspects of communication styles. Communication etiquette on the other hand refers to individuals’ skills and habits. Communication etiquette, which stems from Watzlavick’s communication laws and Wahlroos’ rules for quality interpersonal communication, defines the very core of interpersonal relations. Communication styles and communication etiquette represent important elements of the communication profile of an individual, who of course also has his/her certain value system. Given that all the aforementioned elements are mutually interdependent and are parts of a whole, i.e. represent the uniqueness of each human being, the question which arises is how the human value oriented communication of an individual, i.e. teacher, looks like? Is it aligned with the values determined by national laws as it is expected of teachers? Is the teachers’ communication oriented toward human values and in which way? If the universal human values (non-violence, peace, love, proper conduct, benevolence etc.), which can be found in all societies notwithstanding the cultural, social, religious and other differences, are expressed in an emphatic, assertive and congruent way, using an appropriate communication style, thereby being familiar with and applying communication etiquette, i.e. using a positively shaped communication profile, we can call this type of communication values oriented communication. The dissertation comprises of ten chapters. Eight chapters are focusing on theory and two are focusing on the presentation of our research, discussion of the results and conclusions. The theoretical part of the dissertation focuses on the universal human values, their definition and formulation. An overview of research on universal human values follows, presenting the theory of human values by Milton Rokeach, the theory of universal content and values structure by Shalom H. Schwartz, Claire Graves’ theory on spiral levels of human existence, the position which ‘value’ as a concept takes in the Croatian curriculum as well as explicit teaching of human values within the educational system and lastly, presentation of demands which are placed on the teachers in the sense of mediating their own value systems using communication and interaction with the pupils. Communication process with its different levels and dimensions is explained, as well as theories of communication and relationship perspectives. Communication profile of an individual is also explained in detail, which consists of five aspects: non-verbal, verbal, relational, dialog and unconscious potential, as well as numerous communication styles classifications, communication etiquette and communication competences of communicators. Lastly, the dimensions of value oriented communication as defined, which are: assertive, nonviolent, congruent, emphatic and educational level. The cornerstone of this dissertation lies in the humane, communication systemdynamic theory, which proposes that all elements of the communication system need to be defined from the human point of view, which implies the necessity of beforehand planned inclusion of the human values communication into the educational process. The research has been conducted on the sample of 258 teachers of both genders employed in 17 elementary schools throughout the County of Zagreb. The sample is fitting for the actual teacher population structure which the conclusion on the sample representability corroborated. The average age of teachers in the sample was 43, 24 years, with the average years of service 16, 22. Teachers teaching grades four to eight of all educational fields have been included in the sample: humanistic, linguistic and natural sciences, as well as educational field, in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework. Data collected using polls has been analysed using parametric and non-parametric statistics methods, with the aim of determining a functional variable relationship. The value oriented communication questionnaire battery consisted of three questionnaires. For the first questionnaire the Schwartz PVQ has been administered among all groups of subjects (Portrait Value Questionnaire; Schwartz et al, 2001), with the aim of measuring the subjects’ values priorities before any intervention has occurred. The second questionnaire examined the basic attributes of the teachers’ communication styles (The Communication Styles Inventory; de Vries, 2013) whereas the third questionnaire examined the communication etiquette of an individual (Bakić-Tomić, 2003). The general research hypothesis was: the value oriented communication of elementary school teachers is in accordance with the expected proclaimed values written in the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, Education Law for Elementary and Secondary Education and the National Curriculum Framework. The hypothesis has been partially corroborated. Auxiliary hypotheses were as follows: H1 – ‘the teachers prefer an assertive communication style’. The hypothesis has been corroborated, although it has been expanded to the dimension of semi-open (hidden) communication style. H2 – ‘the teachers have quality communication with the pupils (communication etiquette). High achievement on this questionnaire was expected (above 80%) however the teachers have achieved only 71,82% on the communication etiquette questionnaire, which implies that the hypothesis has not been corroborated. H3 – the ten universal human values of teachers are not statistically significantly correlated with the teachers’ communication styles dimensions. The hypothesis has been partially corroborated. H4 – the ten universal human values of teachers are not statistically significantly correlated with the quality of their communication with the pupils, i.e. communication etiquette. The hypothesis has been only partially corroborated. H5 – there is no statistically significant correlation between the communication style dimensions and individual communication etiquette aspects (quality communication with the pupils attributes). The hypothesis has been only partially corroborated, because the communication etiquette is correlated in 10 out or 24 attributes of communication styles, which means that communication etiquette and communication styles are statistically significantly correlated with regard to 50% of attributes outlined in the questionnaire. H6 – the teachers who specialise in different educational fields (humanistic, linguistic and natural sciences, educational field) do not significantly differ with regard to the application of certain communication styles dimensions. The hypothesis has been corroborated. H7 – the teachers who specialise in different educational fields (humanistic, linguistic and natural sciences, educational field) do not significantly differ with regard to the application of communication etiquette. The hypothesis has been only partially corroborated because the teachers who specialise in the educational field are statistically significantly more apt at communication etiquette than other educational groups in schools. With regard to the communication etiquette, statistically significant differences have been found only for prejudice and blockade, where teachers specialising in education fields achieved higher results than teachers specialising in natural sciences. The correlation between universal human values, communication styles dimension and communication etiquette are keys to inter-correlation of individual categories within the scope of the questionnaire. Comparing universal human values with the communication style dimensions as well as with communication etiquette, three theoretical hypotheses about their mutual correlation have been proposed in order to examine their actual correlation on the sample used in our research. The aim was to test the theoretical model in practice: H1 – communication styles dimensions (emotionality and precision) are correlated with communication etiquette (quality message receiving) and with universal human values of higher degree (self-transcendence), which represents the assertive communication level. H2 – communication styles dimensions (inquisitiveness and expressiveness) are correlated with communication etiquette (quality message sending) and universal human values of higher degree (openness to change), which represents the level of proactive communication. H3 – communication style dimensions (verbal aggressiveness and manipulation) are correlated with communication etiquette (prejudice and blockade) and universal human values of higher degree (self-enhancement and conservation), which represents the level of selfish communication. All hypotheses have been partially corroborated, which means that due to insufficiently developed communication competences as well as a variety of different education situations in which the teachers find themselves on an everyday basis, the teachers employ different communication styles as well as inappropriate communication skills and habits which are acquired due to prejudice. This has a direct impact on co-shaping the value systems of their pupils. The mutual correlation of all the aforementioned elements and interpersonal relations in school between the teachers and pupils has been presented by the theoretical model of values oriented communication. The scientific contribution of the doctoral dissertation is creating a theoretical model of human values oriented communication, which has been empirically tested on elementary school teachers in the Zagreb County of the Republic of Croatia. The values oriented communication consists of ten universal human values, which are connected with three positive and three negative communication styles dimensions as well as communication etiquette (communication competence). The practical contribution of the dissertation is creation of the communication profile of teachers in the Zagreb County as well as creation of their values oriented communication model.

Item Type: PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: universal human values, communication profile, communication etiquette, communication styles, communication competences of communicators, human values oriented communication of teachers
Subjects: Information sciences > Media and communicology
Departments: Department of Information Science
Supervisor: Bakić-Tomić, Ljubica
Additional Information: Poslijediplomski doktorski studij informacijskih i komunikacijskih znanosti
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2019 09:04
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2019 10:17

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