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Anonymous kajkavian drama adaptation at the end of 18th and beginning of the 19th century in Croatian literature and culture


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Jug, Kristina. (2018). Anonymous kajkavian drama adaptation at the end of 18th and beginning of the 19th century in Croatian literature and culture. PhD Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of Croatian Language and Literature.
(Poslijediplomski doktorski studij hrvatske kulture) [mentor Jembrih, Alojz].

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Dissertation Anonymous Kajkavian Dramatic Adaptations at the End of 18th and Beginning of the 19th Century in Croatian Literature and Culture analyses handwritten dramas available today, then it systemizes and completes perceptions of corpus which arose in period from 1791 to 1834 for necessities of school theatre at Kaptol Roman-Catholic Preparatory. The title Anonymous Kajkavian Drama implicates the texts corpus, handwritten and printed, whereof the author’s name was not mentioned. Since until now there hasn’t been any systematic interpretation of these sources, dissertation enables more coherent insight to this theme for present-day reader. Dissertation systematizes sources of older kajkavian drama written for preparatory school theatre and it shows importance of integration of this corpus into Croatian literary historiography as the participant of Croatian culture. Also, there are presented and analyzed for the first time particular written works, the new texts’ readings are introduced, repertory tabular illustrations are shown as well as the developmental track of preparatory school theatre, so in that way it enables modern reader to form more coherent picture of older Croatian literature. In the research were used following methods: analysis of genuine archived dramas’ writings and comparison with dramatic patterns in German language. Earlier researches that treated these sources are analyzed and completed in the dissertation. The work observes interdisciplinary the theme from various scientific aspects: literary, dramaturgical, comparatively, linguistic and literary-historical. In the introductory part the theme and the research motivation are explained, the methodology used in research is stated, then the review of former researches is presented. August Šenoa (1838-1881) was the first one who in his text “Croatian Dramatic Plays in Zagreb at the Beginning of this Century“ (1879) mentioned two dramatic adaptations from corpus of anonymous kajkavian dramatic adaptations meant for performance on a school stage of Kaptol theatre. Then, Đuro Šurmin (1867-1937) wrote about few kajkavian dramatic adaptations in “Gleaning of Kajkavian Literature“ in magazine Vienac (1894). Literary historiography in early 20th century describes this corpus as of lesser esthetic values and mostly omits it from relevant literary historical reviews. The first work which had embraced almost whole corpus of dramas and started to discuss about this dramatic creativity, was the work of Nikola Andrić (1867-1942) Sources of Old Kajkavian Dramas (1901). Nikola Andrić gives the first critical study of these dramatic texts, partially he lists them and he places them into the same group of so-called Kajkavian–Illyrian Circle which today, for its poetic features, is separated from entirety of seminary school drama. Besides, Nikola Andrić spiced the survey of older kajkavian drama corpus with negative critique lacking the analysis and interpretation. Vladimir Gudel (1869-1942) is the following researcher of those sources, but he also followed a practice of negative critique of this corpus. Also, Antonija Kassowitz-Cvijić (1865-1936) and Franjo Fancev (1882-1943) gave certain contributions this theme. Olga Šojat (1908-1997) applied systematic analytical approach in the analysis of school preparatory drama and she gave significant research contributions in attempts to discover authorship of single dramas and to discover patterns wherefrom the kajkavian texts emerged. Along with valuable contributions of Slavko Batušić (1902-1979), Branko Hećimović and Dunja Fališevac, the most important work on this theme is the one of Nikola Batušić (1938-2010). With his study Older Kajkavian Drama (2002), which represents the major work on connoisseurship of this dramatic corpus, starts more earnest interest and analytical reading of anonymous kajkavian dramatic adaptations, then attempts of more coherent critical evaluation. In more recent time the whole corpus is comprehended more objectively, thanks to work of Alojz Jembrih and Ivan Cesarec who for today’s reader ensured the access to old texts in contemporary graphics. The second chapter of dissertation places the older kajkavian drama performed on stage of seminary theatre into social-historical and literary context. Extremely bad social situation on the Croatian extents was shown by displaying the authority of Maria Theresa (1717-1780) and Joseph II (1741-1790) in the course of absolutistic policy. Disunion of Croatian regions led to culture negligence, and particularly to books indolence. Social-historical conditions led to illiteracy of nation and to language disregard. Furthermore, dissertation shows strife for common language which initiated Maksimilijan Vrhovac (1752-1827), the bishop of Zagreb, and also his efforts for cultural endeavors in people’s interest. Bishop Vrhovac founded the printing-house, put up the sumptuous personal book collection and he was interested in linguistic issues, then he was the most outstanding activist for Croats’ culture of that era. But his attempts, as shown in this dissertation chapter, were condemned by conservative opponents. In the second chapter the brief review of Croatian literature of the 18th century is given, aiming to show literary activity based mostly on translations, adaptations, or following prior poetics. In such a literary context, which may be defined most accurately by concept of stylish pluralism, emerged the kajkavian dramatic adaptations at Kaptol preparatory. By selection of exemplary ethic-didactic dramas, which corresponded to spirit of the era, professors constructed the theatre of distinctive poetics for their school-stage in school seminary theatre and they elevated the culture level in city of Zagreb. Also, they wanted to approach the public by kajkavian standard language and to encourage it for proper growth in enlightenment prospect. The second chapter comes to conclusion that anonymous dramatic adaptations had a role in formation of cultural life of north Croatia at end of the 18th and in early 19th century. The third dissertation’s chapter defines the concept of school theatre and it gives the review of school theatres activity led by ecclesiastic orders: Jesuits, Paulists and Franciscans. First of all, it explores situation in Zagreb, but it also borders on the area of Slavonia and partially South Croatia. Going into specifics, the poetics of Jesuitical school drama in Zagreb is shown, in order to recognize the differences with less difficulty later, compared to school seminary dramatics. After that, follows the analysis of theater life in neighboring countries: Serbia, Slovenia and Hungary for the purpose of proving the coexistence of moralistically dramatic adaptations throughout the Europe. By this comparative analysis is proven that professors and students in school theatres on Croatian soil followed the most current European enlightening trends from German and Austrian enlightenment and so cultivated international literary impact. In addition, by this analysis is proven that kajkavian dramatic adaptations followed didactic-moralistic poetics of European dramatic developments. Moreover, since on Dubrovnik area have appeared similar dramatic-translators’ work, it shows that Croatian literal historiography assessed in various ways the similar literary appearances on north and on south of Croatia. Follows the part of text about popularity of August von Kotzebue (1761-1819), the most translated dramatist on school seminary stage in Zagreb, wherein is proven how much professors in preparatory where on top of modern dramatic movements of their time. The conclusive part of the chapter will summarize positive, but also negative, consequences which practice of school theatre had on Croatian culture and on course of professional Croatian theatre’s development. The fourth chapter of work represents the most important and the most detailed part of doctoral dissertation. In the introductory part of chapter is defined the concept of dramatic adaptation and localization as specific dramatic phenomenon in the 18th century in theatre of Central Europe. Then, there is discussion about number of dramas which appeared in repertory of school seminary theatre and there is presented the list of dramatic texts that were performed.In continuation of the text is presented a problem of negative critiques and assessments of this repertory which were decisive in its marginalization. Also, there is given the survey of few positive approaches to single dramas which were set into the anthologies. Follows the survey of terminological issues related to this dramatic corpus, then whole corpus thematic and genre classification. Follows the most ample part of dissertation dealing with detailed analysis of twelve dramas and, based on this analysis and new readings, it presents the poetic features of this dramatic creativity. In dissertation the dramas are analyzed by chronologic order of performances on stage of seminary theatre: Kukolj med pšenicum iliti Bogoslužnost i skazlivost (1794), Velikovečnik /Vernost službe je cena človeka (1794), Vitezovič i njegov sin (1796), Papiga iliti Krepost gde ne štima sreču včini (1797), Dužnost službe (1798), Kaj je preveč ne ni z kruhom dobro (1799), Ljudih merzenje i detinska pokora (1800), Čini barona Tamburlana (1801), Mislibolesnik iliti Hipokondrijakuš (1803), Nije vsaki cepeliš na vsaku nogu iliti Navade velikeh varašov nisu prikladne malem (1804), Poslenovič i njegovi sini (1809) and Veseli Fricek (1826). For each drama the philological-historical data from handwritten sources are presented, then critical survey of earlier researches’ results, detailed dramas’contents, detailed analysis of dramatic personages, elements of humor, particular specific qualities of defined dramas and comparison analysis of kajkavian dramas with German patterns. Each of poetic features is presented in separate part of chapter with numerous examples from handwritten and printed texts. Dissertation presents poetic features of dramatic adaptations of seminary theatre: didacticism as component of dramatic structure, dualism of title, symbolic of names of dramatic personages, prefaces, salutations, partings and ends of dramas functioning as accentuation of didactical lesson, component of middle-class sentimentalism and scenes of weepiness, narrative character in long monologues and elements of oral-literary tradition. Furthermore, the language and the style of dramatic texts are analyzed, then examples of graphic solutions are given. The fifth chapter of dissertation deals with dramas’ performance on seminary theatre school stage and it systemizes theatrological comprehensions of scene and dramaturgy. The stages are described whereon the clerics played dramas: stage in preparatory and bishop residence. Amadéo theatre which performed plays of German travelling actors’ groups is presented, too. Dissertation in its continuation deals with question of a role of German theatre in culture of Zagreb since it had performed three kajkavian dramas, also. Likewise, it is discussed about importance of Amadéo theatre activity whose work created a coexistence of two theatrical scenes in Zagreb of that time. In this chapter is discussed about mutual repertories’ influence between preparatory on Kaptol and Royal Noble Convict and Amadéo theatre. The time survey of performed plays is presented, then dissertation brings new data which modifies former understandings. To wit, it is proven that performances of dramatic adaptations on Kaptol school seminary stage were not performed only during the last three days of Carnival. Follows the analysis of scene and costume features, based on handwritten patterns of dramas studies. Moreover, the directors (professors) which worked on productions are listed, as well as names of actors (students) which performed the plays. Also, to scientific public are presented for the first time the data on single actors–Clerics which participated in plays performances. At the end of chapter is discussed about theater spectators and specifics of school seminary theatre since it has been partially closed for citizens. But, regardless restraints towards the public, the chapter draws the conclusion that seminary scene also influenced the citizens’ consciousness of theatrical culture rising in Zagreb. Chapter is concluded with unit on bishop Maksimilijan Vrhovac, the founder and patron of the arts of Kaptol school theatre, then about his work on theatre issues and struggle for theater premises in Zagreb. The sixth chapter of dissertation deals with woman figure in kajkavian dramatic adaptations performed on stage of school seminary theatre. Masculinisation of texts is shown as the method leading to absence of female personages on stage of school seminary theatre. It is discussed about reasons that led to such a state and which consequences it had for the performing side of play itself. Moreover, the answer is given to question on what was the role of female personages in the structure of kajkavian dramatic texts, since female personages were sometimes indirectly present in the text. In other words, it was spoken about women, but they were not present on stage. Most often they communicated with other personages through letters, therefore in dissertation such one letter is analyzed, then is obtained a picture of woman indirectly idealized on school seminary stage. The conclusion is rendered that such a practice of retaining the female personages in text functions as accentuation of dramas’ didactic element. At the end of chapter there are analyzed in details four dramas that were written in school seminary drama poetics, and they retain female personages: Ljubomirovič ili Prijatel pravi (1821), Hervati vu Zadru (1822), Rodbinstvo (1822) and Predsud zverhu stališa i roda (1830). Attention in the analysis is devoted to female dramatic personages and conclusion is proven that female personages in these dramas were kept only functioning as reinforcement of masculine personages’ position or character features. The last text unit draws the conclusion of dissertation and thesis’ proofs. The seventh chapter of dissertation gives answer to question why anonymous kajkavian dramatic adaptations, despite some research endeavors, are still isolated in Croatian literary historiography. Besides, the reasons which led to obstruction of integration of this corpus into Croatian literature are presented, and they are linked to social-historical context. The conclusive part of dissertation proves that anonymous kajkavian dramatic adaptations represent important segment in literature of north Croatia in late 18th and early 19th century and that they are inseparable part of older Croatian literature. Also, it is discussed about continuity of theater activity in Kaptol seminary theatre and how much it is significant for education of theater public through which it had partial impact on formation of culture prerequisites for national theatre.

Item Type: PhD Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: anonimna kajkavska drama, dramske adaptacije, školsko kazalište, sjemenište na Kaptolu, zagrebački biskup Maksimilijan Vrhovac, didaktično kazalište, moralno-didaktični cilj predstava, kajkavska književnost, prosvjetiteljstvo, građanska drama, njemački dramski izvori
Subjects: Slavic languages and literatures > Croatian language and literature
Departments: Department of Croatian Language and Literature
Supervisor: Jembrih, Alojz
Additional Information: Poslijediplomski doktorski studij hrvatske kulture
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2018 13:26
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2018 13:26

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