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Kontinuitet naseljenosti Žumberka od prapovijesti do kasne antike


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Gudelj, Stanko. (2015). Kontinuitet naseljenosti Žumberka od prapovijesti do kasne antike. Diploma Thesis. Filozofski fakultet u Zagrebu, Department of History. [mentor Olujić, Boris].

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Žumberak, a mountain range on the Croatian-Slovenian border, is located in the western part of Croatia. Žumberak is bordered by large rivers Sava, Kupa and Krka. Key European transport routes between Central and Southeast Europe pass through their valleys. Žumberak is located on the border of the Alpine, Pannonian and Mediterranean areas. The name Žumberak originates from 15th century owner of the settlement named Schoenberg. Name Žumberak was created by replacing it with German names Šumperk or Šumberk. Regional term originates from the name of the managing settlement, which is plausible not only from linguistic but also from historical and functional point of view because Žumberak really represents a centre of the region. The process of settling in this area begins in prehistoric times. Although the data for the period of the Stone Age, the Neolithic and Copper Age - eneolith is scarce, a large number of accidentally found stone axes in Žumberk can confirm population density. The most significant findings from that time were found on the site of Podstražnik, like certain Mousterian scrapers, usually made in same manner, and traces of fire. Settlements were mostly formed during the late Bronze and early Iron Age. Settlements on the border line of Žumberak are especially interesting. There were more than thirty settlements from Bregana across Okić to Vivodina, which means that there was one settlement on every three to five kilometers on average. There hasn't been much research done on the period of the Bronze Age in this area. Therefore, findings from this period are very important and are usually found in graves with urns and from hoards of bronze objects. There were no excavations regarding that period in Žumberk, except trial excavations of Kosovac near Bregana, however, the number of random findings points to great population of the area. The oldest finding from that period is a bronze ax, but it is only known that it was found in the surroundings of Samobor. The use of a new metal - iron introduced changes in the economy that have occurred in late 9th and early 8th century BC. Production of iron through the 8th century became general and along with livestock and agriculture, became the leading branch and marked much of the first millennium before Christ, called the Iron age. Society has become more complex. There was a new social group which became the leader of the development and progress. This new social group united economic and military-political force. It is best depicted in the so-called princely graves. These graves were found at, for now, only prehistoric site that has been systematically investigated in Žumberak, Budinjak. In early antiquity, Latobici inhabited prealpine area, that is, the central part of Zumberak. In the first wave of settlement, they inhabited the lowlands (river valleys of the river Krka, Kupa and Sava), and then mountainous part of Žumberak in the village of Gornja Vas and Bratelji. This is confirmed by findings from the graves. Latobici lived on Žumberk some hundred years - from the middle of the 1st century AD to the middle of the 2nd century - and their presence is richly documented by findings in the tombs. Such graves are very rare in the second half of the 2nd century, which suggests the disappearance of Latobici from this region. The reason for this is certainly the Marcomannic wars and the arrival of the Roman legions from the eastern provinces. Legions brought the plague and the population, because of the threat of war and destruction, probably moved to other parts of the Empire. Findings from graves show all the changes that have occurred in that period. While tombs from the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century are rich with findings and show prosperity, tombs from the second half of the 2nd century are very rare. It is more than obvious that there was a decline and that the area never quite reached the level of development as in antiquity.

Item Type: Diploma Thesis
Subjects: History
Departments: Department of History
Supervisor: Olujić, Boris
Date Deposited: 25 Apr 2018 08:29
Last Modified: 25 Apr 2018 08:29

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